Structural Scale

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#REDIRECT [[:Category:Structural Scale|Category:Structural Scale]]
 
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{{Menu_Models}}
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[[Image:PC_2_difference.gif|thumb|600px| Movie capturing high strain rate deformation of polycarbonate (experiment).  Shown as a difference image between successive frames, so movement triggers an intensity other than gray.  Experiments are used to validate macroscale models.]]
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[[Image:HelmetHeadImpactPicICME.png|thumb|right|200px| Football helmet impact simulation]]
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== Introduction ==
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The key to structural scale applications is employing the "best" numerical method for the application.  Typically, for solid mechanics, finite element methods are employed and used mostly for the engineering applications described in this CyberInfrastructure. 
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== Material Models ==
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Finite element codes can be divided into two categories: implicit quasi-static codes and explicit dynamic (hydrodynamic) codes.  Some examples of implicit quasi-static codes include commercial codes such as [[Code:_ABAQUS_FEM|ABAQUS (Simulia)]], [[Code:_NASTRAN|MSC Nastran]], and [[ESI-Pamstamp]].  Some open network implicit codes include [[Code:_TAHOE|TAHOE]] and [[Code:_CALCULIX|CALCULIX]].  Some examples of explicit dynamics codes include [[Dyna]], [[Code:_LS-DYNA|LS-Dyna]], [[Pronto]], and [[Code:_ABAQUS|ABAQUS-Explicit]].  [[Code:_TAHOE|TAHOE]] and [[Code:_CALCULIX|CALCULIX]] also provide some explicit dynamics solvers as well.
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== Metals ==
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The structural scale information essentially requires the constitutive model that is received from the macroscale.  Although common practice finite element analysis does not include heterogeneities from microstructures, defects, and inclusions within the mesh related to the constitutive model, the MSU plasticity-damage 1.0 model allows the incorporation of such materials science information.  The quantities that can be included in this version of the constitutive model are the grain size, particle size and volume fraction of particles, pore size and volume fraction or pores (porosity level), nearest neighbor distances of pores and particles.  Hence, each element in the finite element mesh would have a different value for each of the quantities and hence the strength and ductility of the material in those domains. Several examples that show that by not using the heterogenous distributions of microstructures, defects, and inclusions include the redesign of a Cadillac control arm <ref name="one">[http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:JCAD.0000024171.13480.24 Horstemeyer, M.F., Wang, P., “Cradle-to-Grave simulation-Based Design Incorporating Multiscale Microstructure-Property Modeling: Reinvigorating Design with Science,” ''J. Computer-Aided Materials Design'', Vol. 10, pp. 13-34, 2003.]</ref>, the Corvette engine cradle <ref>M.F. Horstemeyer, D. Oglesby, J. Fan, P.M. Gullett, H. El Kadiri, Y. Xue, C. Burton, K. Gall, B. Jelinek, M.K. Jones, S. G. Kim, E.B. Marin, D.L. McDowell, A. Oppedal, N. Yang, “From Atoms to Autos:  Designing a Mg Alloy Corvette Cradle by Employing Hierarchical Multiscale Microstructure-Property Models for Monotonic and Cyclic Loads,” MSU.CAVS.CMD.2007-R0001, 2007</ref>, and a powder metal steel engine bearing cap <ref>Hammi, Y, Horstemeyer, MF, Stone, T., Sanderow, H., Chernenkoff, R., Weber, G., "Powder-Metal Performance Modeling of Automotive Components AMD-410, 2009</ref>.
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Some examples of using different finite element simulations with associated input decks using our MSU plasticity-damage 1.0 can be garnered from the following locations:
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# Cadillac control arm ([[Code:_ABAQUS|ABAQUS-Implicit]])<ref name="one"></ref> 
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# Corvette cradle ([[Code:_ABAQUS|ABAQUS-Implicit]])
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# Dodge Neon crash ([[Code:_LS-DYNA|LS-Dyna]])
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# Forming of aluminum plate ([[Code:_ABAQUS|ABAQUS-Implicit]])
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# Crush of aluminum tube ([[Code:_ABAQUS|ABAQUS-Explicit]])
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# [[Multi-CRUSH|Axial Crushing of Multi-Cell Multi-Corner Tubes]] ([[Code:_LS-DYNA|LS-Dyna]])
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====[[Process_Modeling#Hydroforming|Hydroforming]]====
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== Ceramics==
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== Polymers ==
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=== ISV Polymer Modeling ===
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[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00707-010-0349-y A general inelastic internal state variable model for amorphous glassy polymers]
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[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijplas.2012.10.005 An internal state variable material model for predicting the time, thermomechanical, and stress state dependence of amorphous glassy polymers under large deformation]
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=== Application ===
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[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.engfailanal.2012.07.020 Characterization and failure analysis of a polymeric clamp hanger component]
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== Biomaterials==
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* Rams Horn
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**[[Experiments-Structure-Mechanical Property Relations]]
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* Porcine Brain
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**[[Coupled Dynamic Experiments/Modeling]]
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== Geomaterials ==
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*Earth Mantle
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**[[Mantle Convection Study with Lherzolite Material Modeling]]
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== References ==
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<references/>
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Latest revision as of 08:46, 30 July 2014

  1. REDIRECT Category:Structural Scale
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