Living tissue is the key for biomaterials. As such, multiscale modeling is very complex. The structure-property relationships for biomaterials can be thought of from animal/human and vegetation information. Both modeling/simulations for the human body and bio-inspired design ideas are important for extracting information from the biomaterials database. Most biological materials are much stronger than the individual constituents they are made of. They typically have a low density, contain no metals, and have hierarchical organization inherent in their design of both structure and material. Most are multifunctional, self-healing, self-organizing, and self-assembling. They also have a broad range of both Young's moduli and strength, both varying over several orders of magnitude. Additional data is included within the CI and also at the following links:
Meyers MA, Chen P-Y, Lin AY-M, Seki Y. Biological materials: Structure and mechanical properties. Progress in Materials Science 2008;53:1–206.
Biological materials present many examples of unique structures, which provide numerous sources for novel structural material designs. In order to mimic structure and design of biological material, some animals, plants, or human organs are observed and simulated using computational modeling at different length scales. Compared to man-made materials, biological materials have three characteristics. First, biological materials are designed to be function-oriented; therefore, their structures are optimized for their function. Second, biological materials are manufactured from the lowest length scales in a cell. Third, they are organized hierarchically down to the nanoscale. With regard to these characteristics, ICME can be a proper tool to model and simulate biological materials, which can be more complex than man-made materials are. ICME enables to catch up the properties of biological materials from the nanoscale to macroscale and to bring meaningful data with low uncertainty to the tissue level model. Studying these materials at different length scales allows the determination of the hierarchical structure interaction.
Biological Material Systems
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