Streamline Prediction and Particle Tracing
Figure below shows the simulated flow streamlines for the case of flat die and conical die extrusion.
As per the figure below, particle traces were launched from a fixed X,Y,Z location on dummyblock face in the model for three different positions –TOP, MIDDLE and AXIS –at three different time steps. Time Step 01, Time step 14 and Time step 28 each respectively correspond to beginning, half-way and end of the extrusion cycle. All the primary and derived quantities in the simulation are printed by the code along with the global X,Y,Z position of the particle.
|Understanding the positions|
The figure below shows the strain rate evolution for TOP, MIDDLE and AXIS particle at various time steps. The abscissa represents the resultant forward (+Z) distance traveled by the launched particle. It is seen that for each tracing particle the strain rate does not evolve after time step 14. Signalling some kind of steady state is reached.
|Strain rate evolution|
The following figure shows the evolution of strain and Z-velocity for all the particle traces for all time steps on a single plot. Notice that there is almost no strain and nearly zero velocity at time step 1 implying that these quantities have not evolved. Therefore, for texture prediction the data at time step 1 is not sufficient to desire an accurate output.
|Strain and Z-velocity evolution|