Jump to: navigation, search


Basic Usage

Each reference must be put inside <ref> citation </ref> tag. The list of the references will be automatically numbered and formatted in the place marked up as <references/>.


Franklin was an avid chess player. He was playing chess by around 1733, making him the first chess player known by name in the American colonies. His essay on the "Morals of Chess" in Columbian magazine, in December 1786 is the second known writing on chess in America. [1] This essay in praise of chess and prescribing a code of behavior for it has been widely reprinted and translated.[2][3][4] He and a friend also used chess as a means of learning the Italian language, which both were studying; the winner of each game between them had the right to assign a task, such as parts of the Italian grammar to be learned by heart, to be performed by the loser before their next meeting.[5] Franklin was posthumously inducted into the U.S. Chess Hall of Fame in 1999.

Reference for a page section

The references may be grouped, that is, you can have a separate list of references for different sections of your page (say, section on metals, ceramics, polymers, etc). You can achieve that by using "group" attribute: <ref group="metals"> citation </ref> and correspondingly <references group="metals"/>


The structural scale information essentially requires the constitutive model that is received from the macroscale. Although common practice finite element analysis does not include heterogeneities from microstructures, defects, and inclusions within the mesh related to the constitutive model, the MSU plasticity-damage 1.0 model allows the incorporation of such materials science information. The quantities that can be included in this version of the constitutive model are the grain size, particle size and volume fraction of particles, pore size and volume fraction or pores (porosity level), nearest neighbor distances of pores and particles. Hence, each element in the finite element mesh would have a different value for each of the quantities and hence the strength and ductility of the material in those domains. Several examples that show that by not using the heterogenous distributions of microstructures, defects, and inclusions include the redesign of a Cadillac control arm [metals 1], the Corvette engine cradle [metals 2], and a powder metal steel engine bearing cap [metals 3].

References pertaining to metals

  1. Horstemeyer, M.F., Wang, P., “Cradle-to-Grave simulation-Based Design Incorporating Multiscale Microstructure-Property Modeling: Reinvigorating Design with Science,” J. Computer-Aided Materials Design, Vol. 10, pp. 13-34, 2003.
  2. M.F. Horstemeyer, D. Oglesby, J. Fan, P.M. Gullett, H. El Kadiri, Y. Xue, C. Burton, K. Gall, B. Jelinek, M.K. Jones, S. G. Kim, E.B. Marin, D.L. McDowell, A. Oppedal, N. Yang, “From Atoms to Autos: Designing a Mg Alloy Corvette Cradle by Employing Hierarchical Multiscale Microstructure-Property Models for Monotonic and Cyclic Loads,” MSU.CAVS.CMD.2007-R0001, 2007
  3. Hammi, Y, Horstemeyer, MF, Stone, T., Sanderow, H., Chernenkoff, R., Weber, G., "Powder-Metal Performance Modeling of Automotive Components AMD-410, 2009

Multiple uses of the same footnote

To give a footnote a unique identifier, use <ref name="name">. You can then refer to the same footnote again by using a ref tag with the same name. The text inside the second tag doesn't matter, because the text already exists in the first reference. You can either copy the whole footnote, or you can use a terminated empty ref tag that looks like this: <ref name="name" />.

In the following example, the same source is cited three times.

This is an example of multiple references to the same footnote.[6]

Such references are particularly useful when citing sources, if different statements come from the same source.[6]

A concise way to make multiple references is to use empty ref tags, which have a slash at the end. Although this may reduce redundant work, please be aware that if a future editor removes the first reference, this will result in the loss of all references using the empty ref tags.[6]

general references

  1. David Hooper and Kenneth Whyld, The Oxford Companion to Chess, Oxford University Press (2nd ed. 1992), p. 145. ISBN 0-19-866164-9.
  2. The essay appears in Marcello Truzzi (ed.), Chess in Literature, Avon Books, 1974, pp. 14–15. ISBN 0-380-00164-0.
  3. The essay appears in a book by the felicitously named Norman Knight, Chess Pieces, CHESS magazine, Sutton Coldfield, England (2nd ed. 1968), pp. 5–6. ISBN 0-380-00164-0
  4. Franklin's essay is also reproduced at the U.S. Chess Center Museum and Hall of Fame in Washington, D.C.. Retrieved December 3, 2008.
  5. William Temple Franklin, Memoirs of the Life and Writings of Benjamin Franklin, reprinted in Knight, Chess Pieces, pp. 136-37.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Remember that when you refer to the same footnote multiple times, the text from the first reference is used.
Personal tools

Material Models