Calcium Carbonate w/ Polyurethane Panel

Jump to: navigation, search



The purpose of this research is to determine the effect of eggshell, nanoparticles on the compressive and thermal properties of polyurethane foam fabricated structures. Eggshell is a major waste product from poultry industry which has the potential of tailoring the mechanical properties of polymers to satisfy the needs of specific applications in structural engineering. Hence, bulk eggshell were process into very fine nanoscale particles using ball milling and ultrasound techniques. This led to the production of > 30 nm scaled particles of eggshell. The eggshell particles have high stiffness and have very high potential to increase the density of foam material, when they are properly incorporated in the matrix. Hence, different types of foam composited were prepared and tested using compression technique: the neat polyol, and polyol with mechanical and sonication assisted-mixed 1, 2 and 3 wt. % eggshell. The compressive strength of each specimen after testing revealed that modulus increased in a proportionate manner commensurate to the amount of eggshell nanoparticles loaded. Significant improvement of 5.5 %, 56.5% and 125.5 % in compressive modulus were realized due to the addition of 1, 2 and 3 wt.% of eggshell in the foam matrix respectively. More experiments will be done in the future on microstructural analysis and the thermal properties of these materials to determine their structural morphology and stability due to changing temperature.  

Multiscale Modeling

Calcium Carbonate and the Polyurethane foam


The hardening rule played a big role because the bonds for the Calcium Carbonate and the Polyurethane can link up together causing the material to become stronger. This could also cause the density of the material to increase when this happen. When running the compression test, the stress-strain behavior will improve because the bond strength. This will also increase compressive modulus when increase the amount of calcium carbonate.


Once getting the parameters from DFT, then the next step was to use Molecular Dynamics simulations. The goal for this length scale was to use the Molecular Dynamics to help find the hardening rule. The upside was that the bulk calcium carbonate particles were produce less than 30 nanometers. This means that the particles will have an impact on the stiffness of the foam and the increase the density. Once the hardening rule was found, then it would be easier to move toward the bond strength. Bond strength can be looked in the macroscale.

Electronic scale

In this length scale, Density Field Theory was used to calculate the elastic moduli for the CaCo3 and the polyurethane. The bridge between the electronic scale and the atomistics scale was the energy elasticity.


1. Xu, Kaimeng, Zhifeng Zheng, Suyong Huang, Taian Chen, and Zhengjie Tang. "Influence of Glycidyl Methacrylate Grafting on the Mechanical, Water Absorption, and Thermal Properties of Recycled High-Density Polyethylene/Rubber Seed Shell Particle Composites." BioResources 11.1 (2016): n. pag. Journal of Basrah Researches, 20 Mar. 2011. Web.

2. Zhang, Jian, Jizhong Yan, Leonard Uitenham, and Parakalan Krishnamachari. "Biodegradable Poly(Lactic Acid)/Clay Nanocomposites by Melt Intercalation: A Study of Morphological, Thermal, and Mechanical Properties." Taylor & Francis. International Journal of Polymer Analysis and Characterization, 15 Dec. 2008. Web. 03 Aug. 2016.

3. Ashby, M. F., L. J. Gibson, U. Wegst, and R. Olive. "The Mechanical Properties of Natural Materials. I. Material Property Charts." Home. The Royal Society, 8 July 1995. Web. 03 Aug. 2016.

4. Heuer, A. H., and D. J. Fink. "Innovative Materials Processing Strategies: A Biomimetic Approach." ProQuest, 28 Feb. 1992. Web. 3 Aug. 2016.

5. Lin, J., V. M. Puri, and R. C. Anantheswaran. "ASABE Technical Library :: Abstract." ASABE Technical Library :: Abstract. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, n.d. Web. 03 Aug. 2016.

6. Goh, Bee MIn, Yu Wang, M. V. Reddy, Yuan Li Ding, Li Lu, Christopher Bunker, and Kian Ping Loh. "Filling the Voids of Graphene Foam with Graphene “Eggshell” for Improved Lithium-Ion Storage." American Chemical Society, 23 May 2014. Web. 3 Aug. 2016.

7. Ghani, Supri A., and Heah Chong Young. "Conductive Polymer Based on Polyaniline-Eggshell Powder (PANI-ESP) Composites." Journal of Physical Science 2nd ser. 21 (2010): 81-97. Web.

8. Husic, Suhreta, Ivan Javni, and Zoran S. Petrovic. "Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Glass Reinforced Soy-based Polyurethane Composites." Composite Science and Technology, Jan. 2005. Web. 3 Aug. 2016.

9. Xiong, Jiawen, Yunhang Liu, Xiaohui Yang, and Xinling Wang. "Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Polyurethane/montmorillonite Nanocomposites Based on a Novel Reactive Modifier." Polymer Degradation and Stability, Dec. 2004. Web. 3 Aug. 2016.

10. Saha, M. C., Md E. Kabir, and S. Jeelani. "Enhancement in Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Polyurethane Foam Infused with Nanoparticles." Enhancement in Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Polyurethane Foam Infused with Nanoparticles. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 25 Apr. 2008. Web. 03 Aug. 2016.

11. Guilabert, Jose Sepulcre, Teresa Del Pilar Ferrandiz-Gomez, and Jose Miguel Martin-Martinez. "Use of Calcium Carbonate – Fumed Silica Mixtures as Filler in Polyurethane Adhesives." - Sepulcre-Guilabert. Macromolecular Symposia, May 2001. Web. 16 Aug. 2016.

12. Sant' Anna, Sabrina Sae, Denilson Arlindo De Souuza, Danielle Marques De Araujo, Cornelio De Freitas Carvalho, and Maria Irene Yoshida. "Physico-chemical Analysis of Flexible Polyurethane Foams Containing Commercial Calcium CarbonatePhysico-chemical Analysis of Flexible Polyurethane Foams Containing Commercial Calcium Carbonate." Materials Research 11.4 (2008): 433-38. Web.

13. Munoz-Milan, Ana Belen, Ma Angeles Perez-Liminana, Paqui Aran, and A. Cesar Orgiles-Barecelo. "Effect of the Amount of Calcium Carbonate as Filler on the Rheological and Adhesion Properties of a Water‐Based Polyurethane Dispersion." Macromolecular Symposia, Feb. 2005. Web.

14. "CALCIUM CARBONATE." The PubChem Project. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 9 Sept. 2004. Web. 19 Aug. 2016.

15. "Polyurethanes Conference 2000." Google Books. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Aug. 2016.


Personal tools

Material Models