Calcium Carbonate w/ Polyurethane Panel
The purpose of this research is to determine the effect of eggshell, nanoparticles on the compressive and thermal properties of polyurethane foam fabricated structures. Eggshell is a major waste product from poultry industry which has the potential of tailoring the mechanical properties of polymers to satisfy the needs of specific applications in structural engineering. Hence, bulk eggshell were process into very fine nanoscale particles using ball milling and ultrasound techniques. This led to the production of > 30 nm scaled particles of eggshell. The eggshell particles have high stiffness and have very high potential to increase the density of foam material, when they are properly incorporated in the matrix. Hence, different types of foam composited were prepared and tested using compression technique: the neat polyol, and polyol with mechanical and sonication assisted-mixed 1, 2 and 3 wt. % eggshell. The compressive strength of each specimen after testing revealed that modulus increased in a proportionate manner commensurate to the amount of eggshell nanoparticles loaded. Significant improvement of 5.5 %, 56.5% and 125.5 % in compressive modulus were realized due to the addition of 1, 2 and 3 wt.% of eggshell in the foam matrix respectively. More experiments will be done in the future on microstructural analysis and the thermal properties of these materials to determine their structural morphology and stability due to changing temperature.
The hardening rule played a big role because the bonds for the Calcium Carbonate and the Polyurethane can link up together causing the material to become stronger. This could also cause the density of the material to increase when this happen. When running the compression test, the stress-strain behavior will improve because the bond strength. This will also increase compressive modulus when increase the amount of calcium carbonate.
Once getting the parameters from DFT, then the next step was to use Molecular Dynamics simulations. The goal for this length scale was to use the Molecular Dynamics to help find the hardening rule. The upside was that the bulk calcium carbonate particles were produce less than 30 nanometers. This means that the particles will have an impact on the stiffness of the foam and the increase the density. Once the hardening rule was found, then it would be easier to move toward the bond strength. Bond strength can be looked in the macroscale.
In this length scale, Density Field Theory was used to calculate the elastic moduli for the CaCo3 and the polyurethane. The bridge between the electronic scale and the atomistics scale was the energy elasticity.
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