Aluminum 2024-T3 Stress-Strain and Fatigue Life Data

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Contents

Foreword

The information and data contained on this page is publicly available, public domain, information and were obtained from the following document:


R.C. Rice1, J.L. Jackson1, J. Bakuckas2, and S.Thompson3, "Metallic Materials Properties Development and Standardization (MMPDS)", Scientific Report DOT/FAA/AR-MMPDS-01, U.S. Department of Transportation - Federal Aviation Administration - Office of Aviation Research, Washington, D.C. 20591

1 Battelle Memorial Laboratories 505 King Avenue Columbus, OH 43201

2 FAA William J. Hughes Technical Center Materials and Structures Branch, AAR-450 Atlantic City International Airport, NJ 08405

3 U. S. Air Force Research Laboratory Materials and Manufacturing Directorate Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433


Excerpts from the MMPDS Abstract:


The MMPDS Handbook "is recognized internationally as a reliable source of aircraft materials data for aerospace materials selection and analysis."


"The Handbook is the only publicly available source in the U.S. for material allowables that the Federal Avaiation Administration generally accepts for compliance with Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) for material strength properties and design values for aircraft certification and continued airworthiness."


The MMPDS Handbook is available to the public through the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), Springfield, Virginia 22161.

Aluminum 2024 Alloy - Comments (almost verbatim excerpt from MMPDS)

2024 is a heat-treatable Al-Cu alloy which is available in a wide variety of product forms and tempers. The properties vary markedly with temper; those in T3 and T4 type tempers are noteworthy for their high toughness, while T6 and T8 type tempers have very high strength. This alloy has excellent properties and creep resistance at elevated temperatures. The T6 and T8 type tempers have very high resistance to corrosion. 2024-T3, -T4, and -T42 rolled plate, rod and bar, and extruded shapes and 2024-T6 and -T62 forgings have a ā€˜Dā€™ stress corrosion cracking (SCC) rating. This is the lowest rating and means that SCC failures have occurred in service or would be anticipated if there is any sustained stress. In-service failures are caused by stresses produced by any combination of sources including solution heat treatment, straightening, forming, fit-up, clamping, sustained service loads or high service compression stresses that produce residual tensile stresses. These stresses may be tension or compression as well as the stresses due to the Poisson effect, because the actual failures are caused by the resulting sustained shear stresses. Pin-hole flaws in corrosion protection are sufficient for SCC.


Temper T3: solution heat-treated, cold worked, and naturally aged to a substantially stable condition. Applies to products which are cold worked to improve strength after solution heat-treatment, or in which the effect of cold work in flattening or straightening is recognized in mechanical property limits. Solution heat treatment is achieved by heating cast or wrought products to a suitable temperature, holding at that temperature long enough to allow constituents to enter into solid solution and cooling rapidly enough to hold the constituents in solution.

Al 2024-T3 Stress-Strain Data

The plots included in the stress-strain data section present tensile and compressive stress-strain data along with compressive tangent modulus data for various forms of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy at room temperature and elevated temperatures. Figures 1 and 2 present tensile and compressive room temperature stress-strain data along with compressive tangent modulus data for 2024-T3 aluminum alloy sheet and clad 2024-T3 aluminum alloy sheet respectively. Figures 3 through 8 present compressive stress-strain data along with compressive tangent modulus data for clad 2024-T3 aluminum alloy sheet at various elevated temperatures from 212F through 700F. Figures 9 and 10 present tensile and compressive room temperature stress-strain data along with compressive tangent modulus data for 2024-T3 aluminum alloy extrusions of thickness <0.249 inch and 0.25in through 1.499 inch respectively. Figures 1 through 10 all include Ramberg-Osgood parameters derived from the data for each stress-strain curve. Figures 11 through 13 are full-range room temperature tensile stress-strain curves for clad 2024-T3 aluminum alloy sheet, 0.25 inch thick 2024-T3 aluminum alloy extrusion, and 2.00 inch thick 2024-T3 aluminum alloy extrusion respectively. In all figures, curves are presented for data taken along either the Longitudinal or Long Transverse directions or both.


Figure 1: Typical tensile and compressive stress-strain and compressive tangent-modulus curves for 2024-T3 aluminum alloy sheet at room temperature.


Figure 2: Typical tensile and compressive stress-strain and compressive tangent-modulus curves for clad 2024-T3 aluminum alloy sheet at room temperature.


Figure 3: Typical compressive stress-strain and compressive tangent-modulus curves for clad 2024-T3 aluminum alloy sheet at 212F.


Figure 4: Typical compressive stress-strain and compressive tangent-modulus curves for clad 2024-T3 aluminum alloy sheet at 300F.


Figure 5: Typical compressive stress-strain and compressive tangent-modulus curves for clad 2024-T3 aluminum alloy sheet at 400F.


Figure 6: Typical compressive stress-strain and compressive tangent-modulus curves for clad 2024-T3 aluminum alloy sheet at 500F.


Figure 7: Typical compressive stress-strain and compressive tangent-modulus curves for clad 2024-T3 aluminum alloy sheet at 600F.


Figure 8: Typical compressive stress-strain and compressive tangent-modulus curves for clad 2024-T3 aluminum alloy sheet at 700F.


Figure 9: Typical tensile and compressive stress-strain and compressive tangent-modulus curves for 2024-T3 aluminum alloy extrusion <0.249in thickness at room temperature.


Figure 10: Typical tensile and compressive stress-strain and compressive tangent-modulus curves for 2024-T3 aluminum alloy extrusion 0.25in to 1.499in thickness at room temperature.


Figure 11: Typical tensile stress-strain curves (full range) for clad 2024-T3 aluminum alloy sheet at room temperature.


Figure 12: Typical tensile stress-strain curves (full range) for 2024-T3 aluminum alloy 0.25in dia extrusion at room temperature.


Figure 13: Typical tensile stress-strain curves (full range) for 2024-T3 aluminum alloy 2.00in dia extrusion at room temperature.

Al 2024-T3 Fatigue Life Data

The plots included in the fatigue life data section present room temperature stress-life fatigue data at various stress ratios for 2024-T3 aluminum alloy sheet taken in the longitudinal direction for unnotched specimens and various notched specimens with stress intensity factors between 1.5 and 5.0. For each figure, a table of correlative data is included that contains test and specimen details as well as curve fitting parameters for the fatigue life curves.


Figure 14: Best-fit S/N curves for unnotched, 2024-T3 aluminum alloy sheet, longitudinal direction.


Figure 14a: Correlative information for Figure 14.
Figure 15: Best-fit S/N curves for notched, Kt = 1.5, 2024-T3 aluminum alloy sheet, longitudinal direction.


Figure 15a: Correlative information for Figure 15.
Figure 16: Best-fit S/N curves for notched, Kt = 2.0, 2024-T3 aluminum alloy sheet, longitudinal direction.


Figure 16a: Correlative information for Figure 16.
Figure 17: Best-fit S/N curves for notched, Kt = 4.0, 2024-T3 aluminum alloy sheet, longitudinal direction.


Figure 17a: Correlative information for Figure 17.
Figure 18: Best-fit S/N curves for notched, Kt = 5.0, 2024-T3 aluminum alloy sheet, longitudinal direction.


Figure 18a: Correlative information for Figure 18.
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