316 Stainless Steel

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Contents

Introduction

Type 316 Stainless Steel is a austenitic chromium-nickle stainless steel containing molybdenum.[1] Alloying components in 316 SS make it corrosion resistance in many aggressive environment, improve resistance to pitting, and increase its strength at elevated temperature.[1]. Typical uses include exhaust manifold, furnace parts, heat exchanges, jet engine parts, pharmaceutical, photographic equipment, valve and pump trim, chemical equipment, digesters, tanks, evaporators, parts exposed to marine atmosphere and tubing. [2] 316 SS is also a preferred material used in reactors and nuclear power plants. Good strength and creep resistant material which offers excellent mechanical and corrosion resistant properties at sub zero temperature.[3]

Composition Type 316 (%)
Carbon 0.08 max.
Manganese 2.00 max.
Phosphorus 0.045 max.
Sulfur 0.030 max.
Silicon 0.75 max.
Chromium 16.00 - 18.00
Nickel 10.00 - 14.00
Molybdenum 2.00 - 3.00
Nitrogen 0.10 max.
Iron Balance
[1]

Stress-Strain Data

316 stainless steel bar, stress-strain curves at room and elevated temperatures


Bar diameter = 19.05 mm (3/4 in.). Test section diameter = 12.827 mm (0.505 in.)
Composition lot l: 17.81Cr-13.17Ni-2.23Mo-1.54Mn-0.56Si-0.042C-0.027P-0.017S
Composition lot 2: 16.60Cr-12.15Ni-1.80Mo-1.58Mn-O.46Si-O.090C-O.028P-O.013S
UNS S31600

316 stainless steel bar, stress-strain curves at room and elevated temperatures[4]
316 stainless steel bar, stress-strain curves at room and elevated temperatures[4]



Source: T.W. Gibbs and H.W. Wyatt, Short Time Properties of Type 316 Stainless Steel at Very High Temperatures, Paper No. 60-WA-11, Trans. ASME, J. Basic Eng. , 1960. As published in Structural Alloys Hand-book, Vol 2, CINDAS/USAF CRDA Handbooks Operation, Purdue University, 1994, p 31

316 stainless steel bar, monotonic and cyclic stress-strain curves at room and elevated temperatures


Bar diameter = 15.875 mm (5/8 in.).
Hot rolled, annealed 1066 oC (1950 OF), 1 h.
Incremental steps: Solid line, annealed; dashed line, aged 1000 h at test temperature.
Constant amplitude continuous cycling: open circle, annealed; solid circle, aged at 538 oC (1000 oF); solid diamond, aged at 649 oC (1200 oF).
Strain rate for cyclic curves 1-5, 7-9 = 0.004/s; for curves 6 and 10, strain rate = 0.00004/s (a) 21 oC (70 oF) (b) 427 oC (800 oF) (c) 566 oC (1050 oF) (d) 649 oC (1200 oF)
Composition: 17.30Cr-13.30Ni-2.33Mo-1.72Mn-0.40Si-0.06C-0.012P-0.007S-0.065Cu-0.003Ti.
Dimensions in schematic given in inches (1 in = 25.4 mm)
UNS S31600

O2.PNG
[4]
316 stainless steel bar, monotonic and cyclic stress-strain curves at room and elevated temperatures



















































Source: D.A. Keller “Progress on LMFBR Cladding, Structural and Component Material Studies During July 1971 through June 1972,” BMI-1928, Final Report, Task 32, Battelle Columbus, July 1972. As published in Structural Alloys Handbook, Vol 2, CINDAS/USAF CRDA Handbooks Operation, Perdue University, 1994, p 32


316 stainless steel sheet, typical stress-strain curves at room and elevated temperatures


Sheet thickness = 3.175 mm (0.125 in.)
Composition: 17.17Cr-12.96Ni-2.15Mo-1.7Mn-0.2Si-0.03C
UNS S31600

316 stainless steel sheet, typical stress-strain curves at room and elevated temperatures
[4]


Source: T.W. Gibbs, W. Kyros, and C.L. Theberge, "Development of a Resistance Heating Facility for the Determination of Tensile Properties of Aircraft and Missile Alloys," RaD. TM-63-8, Avco Corp., Feb 1963. As published in Structural Alloys Handbook, Vol 2, CINDAS/USAF CRDA Handbooks Operation, Purdue University, 1994, p 33


316 wrought stainless steel bar, typical stress-strain curves at room and elevated temperatures


Composition: Fe-18Cr-13Ni-Mo
UNS S31600

316 wrought stainless steel bar, typical stress-strain curves at room and elevated temperatures
[4]


Source: L.J. Fritz and W.P. Koster, "Tensile and Creep Rupture Properties of (16) Uncoated and (2) Coated Engineering Alloys at Elevated Temperatures," NASA Cr-135138, Metcut Research Associates, Inc., Jan 1977. As published in Structural Alloys Handbook, Vol 2, CINDAS/USAF CRDA Handbooks Operation, Purdue University, 1994, p 33


316 annealed stainless steel bar, true stress-strain curves for irradiated and unirradiated samples


True axial strain rate = 4 x 10-5/s. Test temperature 649 oC (1200 oF)
Closed data points: unirradiated specimens in duplicate tests
Open circles and squares: unirradiated specimens
Open diamond: irradiated specimen 4 X 1018 n/cm2, E > 1 MeV at 70 oC in the ORR core facility
Composition: Fe-17.3Cr-13.1Ni-2.33Mo-1.72Mn-0.4Sc-0.065Cu-0.06C-0.012A1
UNS S31600

316 annealed stainless steel bar, true stress-strain curves for irradiated and unirradiated samples
[4]


Source: J.B. Conway, J.T. Berling, and R.H. Stentz, "New Correlations Involving the Low-Cycle Fatigue and Short-Term Tensile Behavior of Irradiated and Unirradiated 304 and 316 Stainless Steel," GEMP 726, General Electric Co., Dec 1969. N70-25351. As published in Structural Alloys Handbook, Vol 2, CINDAS/USAF CRDA Handbooks Operation, Purdue University, 1994, p 34


316 stainless steel plate, true stress-strain curves at room and low temperatures for base and weld metal


Plate thickness = 15.9 mm (5/8 in.)
Squares: base metal data
Circles: weld metal data
Specimen diameter 6.401 mm (0.252 in.)
Composition: 16.64Cr-12.84Ni-2.69Mo-1.91Mn-0.45Si-0.068C-0.026P-0.012S
UNS S31600

316 stainless steel plate, true stress-strain curves at room and low temperatures for base and weld metal
[4]


Source: T.S. DeSisto, "Low Temperature Mechanical Properties of Base and Weld Deposits of Selected Austenitic Stainless Steels," AMRA TR 63-08, Metals and Ceramics Research Agency, U.S. Army Materials Research Agency, July 1963, AD 416 119. As published in Structural Alloys Handbook, Vol 2, CINDAS/USAF CRDA Handbooks Operation, Purdue University, 1994, p 34


316 stainless steel sheet, stress versus plastic strain curves for elevated temperatures with effect of annealing and cold working


Sheet thickness = 1.47 mm (0.058 in.)
Plastic strain resulting from constant stress for 2 min at elevated temperature
Composition: Fe-18Cr-13Ni-Mo
UNS S31600

316 stainless steel sheet, stress versus plastic strain curves for elevated temperatures with effect of annealing and cold working
[4]


Source: T.W. Gibbs and Wyatt, H.W., "Short-Time Tensile Properties of Type 316 Stainless Steel at Very High Temperatures," ASME Paper No. 60-WA-11. As published in Aerospace Structural Metals Handbook, Vol 2, Code 1307, CINDAS/USAF CRDA Handbooks Operation, Purdue University, 1995, p 40


316 annealed stainless steel wire, effect of vacuum on stress-strain curves at room temperature


Wire diameter = 0.457 mm (0.018 in.)
Strain rate = 0.0001/s
Composition: Fe-18Cr-13Ni-Mo
UNS S31600

316 annealed stainless steel wire, effect of vacuum on stress-strain curves at room temperature
[4]


Source: I.R. Kramer and S.D. Podlaseck, "Effect of Low Pressures on the Mechanical Behavior of Metals," Martin Marietta Corp., Oct 1963, AD 424 292. As published in Structural Alloys Handbook, Vol 2, CINDAS/USAF CRDA Handbooks Operation, Purdue University, 1994, p 33


316 annealed stainless steel bar, stress-strain curves at room and elevated temperatures


Composition: Fe-18Cr-13Ni-Mo
UNS S31600

316 annealed stainless steel bar, stress-strain curves at room and elevated temperatures
[4]


Source: T.W. Gibbs and H.W. Wyatt, "Short-Time Tensile Properties of Type 316 Stainless Steel at Very High Temperatures," ASME Paper No. 60-WA-11. As published in Aerospace Structural Metals Handbook, Vol 2, Code 1307, CINDAS/USAF CRDA Handbooks Operation, Purdue University, 1995, p 29


316 mill annealed stainless steel bar, complete true stress-strain curves for room and low temperatures


Bar diameter = 12.7 mm (0.5 in.). Composition: Fe-18Cr-13Ni-M0
UNS S31600

316 mill annealed stainless steel bar, complete true stress-strain curves for room and low temperatures
[4]

Source: T.S. DeSisto and F.L. Carr, "Low Temperature Mechanical Properties of 300 Series Stainless Steels and Titanium," WAL TR 323, 4/1, Watertown Arsenal Laboratories, Dec 1961. As published in Aero-space Structural Metals Handbook, Vol 2, Code 1307, CINDAS/USAF CRDA Handbooks Operation, Purdue University, 1995, p 29


316 annealed stainless steel bar, true stress-strain curves at room and elevated temperatures (True)


Bar diameter = 6.35 mm (0.25 in.) Data were collected at constant axial true strain rates of 0.004 (open data points) and 0.00004 (solid data points). The curves for the higher strain rates are above the other curve at 650 oC and 816 oC (1202 oF and 1580 oF), while the reverse is true for 430 oC (806 oF). P max is the point of maximum load.
Composition: Fe-18Cr-13Ni-Mo.
UNS S31600

316 annealed stainless steel bar, true stress-strain curves at room and elevated temperatures (True)
[4]


Source: J.B. Conway, R.H. Stentz, and J.T. Berling, "Fatigue, Tensile, and Relaxation Behavior of Stainless Steels," Technical Information Center, USAEC, 1975, p 214


316 annealed stainless steel bar, engineering stress-strain curves at room and elevated temperatures (Engineering)


Bar diameter = 6.35 mm (0.25 in.). Data were collected at constant axial true strain rates of 0.004 (open data points) and 0.00004 (solid data points). Same data was used as for the true stress-strain curve. The curves for the higher strain rates are above the other curve at 650 oC and 816 oC (1202 oF and 1580 oF), while the reverse is true for 430 oC (806 oF). The strain rate effect is more pronounced for the higher temperatures. The lines are dashed as they approach the fracture point.
Composition: Fe-18Cr-13Ni-Mo
UNS S31600

316 annealed stainless steel bar, engineering stress-strain curves at room and elevated temperatures (Engineering)
[4]


Source: J.B. Conway, R.H. Stentz, and J.T. Berling, "Fatigue, Tensile, and Relaxation Behavior of Stainless Steels," Technical Information Center, USAEC, 1975, p 216


316 annealed stainless steel sheet, true stress-strain curves at room and low temperatures


Sheet thickness = 0.762 mm (0.03 in.). Annealed 1049 oC (1920 oF), 0.25 h, water quenched, grain size 100 μm, gage section = 6.35 X 0.762 X 25.4 mm (0.25 X 0.03 X 1.0 in.), strain rate 0.004/min
Composition: Fe-18Cr-13Ni-Mo
UNS S31600

316 annealed stainless steel sheet, true stress-strain curves at room and low temperatures
[4]


Source: V. Seetharaman and R. Krishnan, Influence of the Martensitic Transformation on the Deformation Behavior of an AISI 316 Stainless Steel at Low Temperatures, J. Mater. sci., Vol 16 (No. 2), Feb 1981, p 523—530. As published in Aerospace Structural Metals Handbook, Vol 2, Code 1307, CINDAS/USAF CRDA Handbooks Operation, Purdue University, 1995, p 30


316 annealed stainless steel wrought, isochronous stress-strain curves at elevated temperatures


Left: 538 oC (1000 oF)
Middle: 593 oC (1100 oF)
Right: 649 oC (1200 oF)
Composition: Fe-18Cr-13Ni-Mo
UNS S31600

316 annealed stainless steel wrought, isochronous stress-strain curves at elevated temperatures
[4]


Source: "Isochronous Stress-Strain Curves for 2 1/4Cr-lMo, Type 304-304H, and Type 316-316H Steels," Technical Report 2012-Part l, United Nuclear Corp., Sept 1970. As published in Aerospace Structural Metals Handbook, Vol 2, Code 1307, CINDAS/USAF CRDA Hand-books Operation, Purdue University, 1995, p 40


316 annealed stainless steel bar, cyclic and monotonic stress-strain curves in air at 627 oC (1160 oF)


Specimen reduced section 7.4 mm (0.29 in.) diam X 12.7 mm (0.50 in.) long. Solution annealed 699 oC (1920 oF)
Cyclic test: triangular strain wave form, R = -1, strain rate 4%/min
Composition: Fe-18Cr-13Ni-Mo
UNS S31600

316 annealed stainless steel bar, cyclic and monotonic stress-strain curves in air at 627 oC (1160 oF)
[4]


Source: D.S. Wood, J. Wynn, A.B. Baldwin, and P. O'Riordan, Some Creep Fatigue Properties of Type 316 Steel at 625 C, Fatigue Eng. Mater. Struct., Vol 3, No. l, 1980, p 39—57. As published in Aerospace Structural Metals Handbook, Vol 2, Code 1307, CINDAS/USAF CRDA Handbooks Operation, Purdue University, 1995, p 43


316 annealed and cold-worked stainless steel sheet, stress-strain curves for room and elevated temperatures


Test direction: longitudinal. Sheet thickness = 1.473 mm (0.058 in.)
Specimens vacuum annealed, 1093 oC (2000 oF), 15 min, plus 5% and 10% cold worked.
Composition: Fe-18Cr-13Ni-Mo
UNS S31600

316 annealed and cold-worked stainless steel sheet, stress-strain curves for room and elevated temperatures
[4]


Source: T.W. Gibbs and H. W. Wyatt, "Short-Time Tensile Properties of Type 316 Stainless Steel at Very High Temperatures," ASME Paper No. 60-WA-11. As published in Aerospace Structural Metals Handbook, Vol 2, Code 1307, CINDAS/USAF CRDA Handbooks Operation, Purdue University, 1995, p 28


316 SS at various strain rates in 0.82 kmol/m3 HCl solution at 353 K


Stress-Strain curve of 316 SS in 0.82 kmol/m3 HCl solution at 353 K
[5]

Stress-strain curve for 316 SS at various strain rates


Stress-strain curve of 316 SS at room temperature and strain rate ranging from 10-2 to 30,000 s-1

316 SS at various strain rates
[6]

True stress - True Strain curve deformed in torsion at different temperature


AISI 316 Stainless Steel (Commercial Grade)
Composition - 0.07C-1.27Mn-0.64Si-0.023S-0.020P-10.9Ni-17.2Cr-2.29Mo-0.49Cu-0.02Al-0.32Co-BalFe
History - Extruded at 1700 oC (2138 oF)
316 Stainless Steel was tested under torsion at temperatures ranging from 800 oC - 1100 oC (1472 oF - 2012 oF) and normal strain rate of 3.9 s-1.

True stress - True strain curve for 316 SS deformed under torsion at a strain rate of 3.9 s-1 and at different temperatures
[7]


Stress-strain curve at different temperature of 316 SS sheet 1.0 mm thickness


Composition - 67.69Fe-16.63Cr-10.85Ni-2.42Mo-1.28Si-0.38Mn-0.21Cu-0.21Co-0.018C

316 SS Sheet of 1.0 mm, stress-strain curve at different temperatures at strain rate of 0.01
[8]

Stress-strain curve of 316 SS in plain strain compression at 910 oC, preheating temperature 904 oC


Composition - 0.024C-16.70Cr-12.20Ni-2.63Mo-1.50Mn-0.29Si
Reheating temperature = 904 oC
Testing temperature = 910 oC
Grain Size = 18.9 ± 1.8 μm
Electrolytic etching, 100 X


Stress-Strain data from plain strain compression test in AISI 316 SS

Test Initial Breath bo (mm) Final breath bf (mm) Initial thickness to (mm) Final Thickness tf (mm) Strain Rate ε̇ (sec-1) Peak Stress σp (MN/m2) Steady State Stress σs (MN/m2) Stress at 0.15 strain σ0.15 (MN/m2) Strain to peak stress εp
RC095 49.90 61.18 10.92 2.18 0.533 254 193 238 0.318
RC096 50.00 60.58 10.97 2.29 1.075 269 205 253 0.323
RC097 50.10 60.45 11.01 2.32 2.144 282 210 268 0.328
RC098 50.00 59.28 10.91 2.26 5.295 296 214 288 0.338
RC099 49.90 59.13 11.04 2.31 8.043 300 217 293 0.299
RC0102 54.14 63.61 10.66 1.98 10.91 307 228 296 0.328
RC0103 53.88 63.56 10.66 1.95 16.16 313 233 305 0.308
RC0104 54.54 63.95 10.73 3.06 26.61 322 243 320 0.259
RC0105 49.90 53.50 10.94 2.17 47.40 343 252 340 0.219
Stress-strain curve of 316 SS in plain strain compression at 910 oC, preheating temperature 904 oC
[9]

Stress-strain curve of 316 SS in plain strain compression at 910 oC, preheating temperature 1010 oC


Composition - 0.024C-16.70Cr-12.20Ni-2.63Mo-1.50Mn-0.29Si
Reheating temperature = 1010 oC
Testing temperature = 904 oC
Grain Size = 29.6 ± 2.4 μm
Electrolytic etching, 100 X


Stress-Strain data from plain strain compression test in AISI 316 SS

Test Initial Breath bo (mm) Final breath bf (mm) Initial thickness to (mm) Final Thickness tf (mm) Strain Rate ε̇ (sec-1) Peak Stress σp (MN/m2) Steady State Stress σs (MN/m2) Stress at 0.15 strain σ0.15 (MN/m2) Strain to peak stress εp
RC0106 49.90 60.23 10.99 2.22 0.543 238 191 224 0.348
RC0107 50.00 60.09 11.04 2.33 1.078 257 205 240 0.359
RC0108 50.00 59.98 15.01 2.24 2.102 266 210 251 0.353
RC0109 50.00 59.64 10.94 2.25 5.272 279 215 267 0.348
RC0110 54.38 64.10 10.82 2.16 7.944 285 221 272 0.343
RC0111 53.67 63.51 10.77 2.12 10.55 287 224 277 0.328
RC0112 53.97 63.16 10.80 2.14 15.86 291 228 285 0.289
RC0113 54.55 63.32 10.75 2.03 24.19 305 240 300 0.239
RC0114 50.00 58.13 10.90 2.10 47.70 330 253 327 0.189
Stress-strain curve of 316 SS in plain strain compression at 910 oC, preheating temperature 1010 oC
[9]

Stress-strain curve of 316 SS in plain strain compression at 910 oC, preheating temperature 1095 oC


Composition - 0.024C-16.70Cr-12.20Ni-2.63Mo-1.50Mn-0.29Si
Reheating temperature = 1095 oC
Testing temperature = 910 oC
Grain Size = 59.3 ± 2.6 μm
Electrolytic etching, 100 X


Stress-Strain data from plain strain compression test in AISI 316 SS

Test Initial Breath bo (mm) Final breath bf (mm) Initial thickness to (mm) Final Thickness tf (mm) Strain Rate ε̇ (sec-1) Peak Stress σp (MN/m2) Steady State Stress σs (MN/m2) Stress at 0.15 strain σ0.15 (MN/m2) Strain to peak stress εp
RC0279 55.17 60.69 10.92 4.80 0.175 238 203 198 0.348
RCO280 54.95 61.72 10.93 4.09 0.482 236 215 221 0.369
RCO119 54.37 64.60 10.79 2.19 1.109 245 210 229 0.368
RCO115 54.96 64.09 10.85 2.19 2.182 258 214 239 0.338
RCOI17 53.96 63.27 10.78 2.08 11.15 282 226 266 0.331
RCO118 54.31 63.52 10.74 2.06 16.49 287 254 280 0.313
RCO282 55.09 61.24 10.96 3.71 46.58 320 282 313 0.214


Stress-strain curve of 316 SS in plain strain compression at 910 oC, preheating temperature 1095 oC
[9]

Stress-strain curve of 316 SS in plain strain compression at 910 oC, preheating temperature 1194 oC


Composition - 0.024C-16.70Cr-12.20Ni-2.63Mo-1.50Mn-0.29Si
Reheating temperature = 1194 oC
Testing temperature = 910 oC
Grain Size = 158.4 ± 4.1 μm
Electrolytic etching, 100 X


Stress-Strain data from plain strain compression test in AISI 316 SS

Test Initial Breath bo (mm) Final breath bf (mm) Initial thickness to (mm) Final Thickness tf (mm) Strain Rate ε̇ (sec-1) Peak Stress σp (MN/m2) Steady State Stress σs (MN/m2) Stress at 0.15 strain σ0.15 (MN/m2) Strain to peak stress εp
RCO283 64.82 62.09 10.95 3.71 0.091 189 177 165 0.363
RCO284 56.13 62.50 11.00 3.76 0.177 210 200 195 0.393
RC0121 50.00 60.50 10.99 2.40 0.557 232 208 212 0.418
RC0125 53.71 63.96 10.72 2.34 2.047 250 218 235 0.423
RC0126 54.18 63.25 10.68 2.13 5.309 259 221 243 0.428
RC0127 54.73 63.42 10.74 2.24 7.743 274 226 252 0.408
RC0129 54.22 63.35 10.76 2.22 13.98 385 243 268 0.378
RC0122 50.00 58.96 10.97 2.30 24.65 396 246 288 0.264
RC0123 50.10 58.51 11.01 2.27 48.99 313 252 307 0.219
Stress-strain curve of 316 SS in plain strain compression at 910 oC, preheating temperature 1194 oC
[9]

Stress-strain curve of 316 SS in plain strain compression at 1006 oC, h/w = 0.40


Composition - 0.024C-16.70Cr-12.20Ni-2.63Mo-1.50Mn-0.29Si
Testing temperature = 1006 oC
Ratio for specimen thickness over tool width (h/w) = 0.40
ho = 6 mm
Stress-Strain data from plain strain compression test in AISI 316 SS

Test Initial Breath bo (mm) Final breath bf (mm) Initial thickness to (mm) Final Thickness tf (mm) Strain Rate ε̇ (sec-1) Peak Stress σp (MN/m2) Steady State Stress σs (MN/m2) Stress at 0.15 strain σ0.15 (MN/m2) Strain to peak stress εp
RC0178 56.61 64.55 6.20 1.92 0.092 138 116 135 0.310
RCOI79 56.34 63.74 6.13 1.87 0.177 150 125 143 0.326
RCOI8O 56.40 64.35 6.14 1.76 0.462 165 143 157 0.330
RCO181 56.24 64.45 6.10 1.72 1.047 175 153 169 0.330
RC0182 56.03 63.53 6.16 1.75 2.039 185 159 178 0.322
RC0183 56.35 64.14 6.10 1.71 5.121 203 173 195 0.310
RC0184 56.00 64.04 6.16 1.79 10.28 213 179 209 0.294
RC0185 55.41 63.43 6.16 2.76 20.94 225 188 222 0.240
RC0186 55.39 63.23 6.17 1.65 50.01 253 203 245 0.226
RC0187 55.39 63.53 6.11 1.69 70.41 269 206 261 0.216
RC0188 55.83 63.53 6.08 1.64 103.4 278 216 273 0.204


Stress-strain curve of 316 SS in plain strain compression at 1006 oC, h/w = 0.40
[9]


Stress-strain curve of 316 SS in plain strain compression at 1006 oC, h/w = 0.53


Composition - 0.024C-16.70Cr-12.20Ni-2.63Mo-1.50Mn-0.29Si
Testing temperature = 1006 oC
Ratio for specimen thickness over tool width (h/w) = 0.53
ho = 8 mm
Stress-Strain data from plain strain compression test in AISI 316 SS

Test Initial Breath bo (mm) Final breath bf (mm) Initial thickness to (mm) Final Thickness tf (mm) Strain Rate ε̇ (sec-1) Peak Stress σp (MN/m2) Steady State Stress σs (MN/m2) Stress at 0.15 strain σ0.15 (MN/m2) Strain to peak stress εp
RC0175 55.16 63.43 8.15 2.19 0.105 139 110 132 0.320
RC0176 55.16 63.53 8.03 2.02 0.208 153 125 144 0.326
RC0177 55.44 63.33 8.00 2.02 0.529 169 139 160 0.330
RC0158 55.73 62.61 8.08 2.06 1.092 179 147 169 0.332
RC0159 55.64 63.74 8.12 2.07 2.057 192 153 180 0.340
RC0160 55.57 63.53 8.09 2.12 5.127 209 169 200 0.326
RC0161 55.29 62.40 8.05 2.09 10.08 223 176 216 0.298
RC0172 55.08 63.63 7.97 2.03 22.35 235 181 230 0.237
RC0173 55.08 63.84 8.00 1.89 48.09 260 191 257 0.205
RC0174 55.08 63.43 8.14 2.03 65.33 271 204 269 0.197
Stress-strain curve of 316 SS in plain strain compression at 1006 oC, h/w = 0.73
[9]

Stress-strain curve of 316 SS in plain strain compression at 1006 oC, h/w = 0.73


Composition - 0.024C-16.70Cr-12.20Ni-2.63Mo-1.50Mn-0.29Si
Testing temperature = 1006 oC
Ratio for specimen thickness over tool width (h/w) = 0.73
ho = 11 mm
Stress-Strain data from plain strain compression test in AISI 316 SS

Test Initial Breath bo (mm) Final breath bf (mm) Initial thickness to (mm) Final Thickness tf (mm) Strain Rate ε̇ (sec-1) Peak Stress σp (MN/m2) Steady State Stress σs (MN/m2) Stress at 0.15 strain σ0.15 (MN/m2) Strain to peak stress εp
RC0155 54.27 62.51 10.95 3.08 0.095 146 111 139 0.359
RC0154 55.09 64.35 10.92 2.93 0.206 160 121 152 0.365
RC0138 54.62 65.06 11.03 3.50 0.622 176 134 164 0.365
RC0137 56.08 65.16 10.92 3.37 1.008 187 144 181 0.355
RC0153 56.26 64.75 10.90 2.81 2.097 200 147 194 0.342
RCO15O 56.64 64.45 10.92 2.60 5.298 216 158 206 0.333
RCO15I 57.14 64.75 10.92 2.61 10.84 229 179 219 0.308
RC0152 55.30 63.84 10.82 2.61 21.25 249 191 242 0.217
RC0145 56.86 63.33 10.97 3.01 53.31 278 213 269 0.189
Stress-strain curve of 316 SS in plain strain compression at 1006 oC, h/w = 0.73
[9]

Stress-strain curve of 316 SS in plain strain compression at 1006 oC, transverse specimen, h/w = 0.73


Composition - 0.024C-16.70Cr-12.20Ni-2.63Mo-1.50Mn-0.29Si
Testing temperature = 1006 oC
Ratio for specimen thickness over tool width (h/w) = 0.73
ho = 11 mm
Stress-Strain data from plain strain compression test in AISI 316 SS

Test Initial Breath bo (mm) Final breath bf (mm) Initial thickness to (mm) Final Thickness tf (mm) Strain Rate ε̇ (sec-1) Peak Stress σp (MN/m2) Steady State Stress σs (MN/m2) Stress at 0.15 strain σ0.15 (MN/m2) Strain to peak stress εp
RCO219 46.37 60.08 10.81 2.94 0.095 148 110 141 0.299
RCO276 48.90 56.71 11.07 3.34 0.178 163 117 155 0.313
RCO277 53.51 60.24 11.08 3.40 0.512 181 145 169 0.358
RCO230 46.99 59.37 10.96 3.15 5.075 222 166 209 0.334
RCO228 50.47 61.73 10.87 3.13 10.18 238 182 226 0.312
RCO229 46.40 58.73 10.89 3.04 45.91 285 208 284 0.195
Stress-strain curve of 316 SS in plain strain compression at 1006 oC, transverse specimen, h/w = 0.73
[9]

Stress-strain curve of 316 SS in axisymmetric compression at 1006 oC, through the thickness direction


Composition - 0.024C-16.70Cr-12.20Ni-2.63Mo-1.50Mn-0.29Si
Testing temperature = 1006 oC
*The broken curves correspond to the specimens machined to obtain a width over diameter ratio equal to 1


Stress-Strain data from axisymmetric compression test in AISI 316 SS

Test Direction Initial height ho (mm) Initial diameter do (mm) Final height hf (mm) Strain Rate ε̇ (sec-1) Peak Stress σp (MN/m2) Stress at 0.15 strain σ0.15 (MN/m2) Strain to peak stress εp
RCO254 t 10.27 7.18 4.06 0.523 185 164 0.465
RCO255 t 10.19 7.09 3.97 1.052 198 173 0.505
RCO256 t 10.34 7.18 3.98 2.090 208 184 0.530
RCO257 t 10.21 7.17 3.99 5.266 236 204 0.560
RCO258 t 10.31 7.14 4.11 10.11 257 220 0.615
RCO259 t 10.34 7.10 3.88 20.35 269 239 0.530
RCO260 t 10.21 7.15 3.73 46.65 306 277 0.420
RCO293 t 7.26 7.14 2.97 0.765 196 169 0.495
RCO294 t 7.13 7.10 3.01 2.705 229 192 0.560
RCO292 t 7.23 7.13 2.92 23.26 287 258 0.570
RCO291 t 7.37 7.13 2.65 56.25 314 285 0.440
Stress-strain curve of 316 SS in axisymmetric compression at 1006 oC, through the thickness direction. The broken curves correspond to the specimens machined to obtain a width over diameter ratio equal to 1.
[9]

Stress-strain curve of 316 SS in axisymmetric compression at 1006 oC, through the width direction


Composition - 0.024C-16.70Cr-12.20Ni-2.63Mo-1.50Mn-0.29Si
Testing temperature = 1006 oC


Stress-Strain data from axisymmetric compression test in AISI 316 SS

Test Direction Initial height ho (mm) Initial diameter do (mm) Final height hf (mm) Strain Rate ε̇ (sec-1) Peak Stress σp (MN/m2) Stress at 0.15 strain σ0.15 (MN/m2) Strain to peak stress εp
RC0168 w 10.40 7.08 5.01 0.529 185 160 0.517
RC0167 w 10.33 7.16 4.02 1.048 211 178 0.538
RC0166 w 10.55 7.08 4.22 2.113 216 186 0.541
RCOI71 w 10.29 7.15 5.61 5.165 240 209 0.624
RC0164 w 10.51 7.12 3.79 10.84 250 219 0.649
RC0163 w 10.40 7.12 3.64 21.11 275 247 0.605
RC0162 w 10.20 7.17 2.56 50.21 311 274 0.583
Stress-strain curve of 316 SS in axisymmetric compression at 1006 oC, through the width direction
[9]

Stress-strain curve of 316 SS in axisymmetric compression at 1006 oC, through the length direction


Composition - 0.024C-16.70Cr-12.20Ni-2.63Mo-1.50Mn-0.29Si
Testing temperature = 1006 oC


Stress-Strain data from axisymmetric compression test in AISI 316 SS

Test Direction Initial height ho (mm) Initial diameter do (mm) Final height hf (mm) Strain Rate ε̇ (sec-1) Peak Stress σp (MN/m2) Stress at 0.15 strain σ0.15 (MN/m2) Strain to peak stress εp
RC0253 l 10.32 7.18 4.31 0.520 190 162 0.515
RC0247 l 10.36 7.17 4.18 1.063 199 170 0.535
RC0248 l 10.39 7.14 4.31 2.068 219 187 0.575
RC0249 l 10.37 7.14 4.34 5.098 242 206 0.620
RC0250 l 10.37 7.10 4.12 10.49 255 215 0.640
RC0251 l 10.33 7.17 3.96 20.72 277 239 0.615
Stress-strain curve of 316 SS in axisymmetric compression at 1006 oC, through the length direction
[9]

Stress-strain curve of 316 SS in torsion at 905 oC


Composition - 0.024C-16.70Cr-12.20Ni-2.63Mo-1.50Mn-0.29Si
Testing temperature = 905 oC
Grain Size = 30.2 ± 1.5 μm


Stress-Strain data from torsion test in AISI 316 SS

Test Gauge length l (mm) Gauge diameter d (mm) Strain Rate ε̇ (sec-1) Peak Stress σp (MN/m2) Stress at 0.15 strain σ0.15 (MN/m2) Steady state stress σs (MN/m2) Strain to peak stress εp
RC09T 14.30 7.11 0.018 146 139 121 0.299
RC08T 14.72 6.93 0.028 168 154 158 0.408
RC07T 14.80 7.04 0.354 224 182 197 0.448
RC05T 14.43 7.01 0.703 238 198 219 0.468
RC06T 14.71 6.98 1.499 266 219 235 0.557
Stress-strain curve of 316 SS in torsion at 905 oC
[9]

Stress-strain curve of 316 SS in torsion at 1008 oC


Composition - 0.024C-16.70Cr-12.20Ni-2.63Mo-1.50Mn-0.29Si
Testing temperature = 1008 oC
Grain Size = 59.3 ± 2.6 μm


Stress-Strain data from torsion test in AISI 316 SS

Test Gauge length l (mm) Gauge diameter d (mm) Strain Rate ε̇ (sec-1) Peak Stress σp (MN/m2) Stress at 0.15 strain σ0.15 (MN/m2) Steady state stress σs (MN/m2) Strain to peak stress εp
RC011T 14.82 6.97 0.0032 82 70 74 0.299
RC010T 14.60 7.00 0.014 110 104 93 0.348
RC012T 14.74 7.04 0.031 120 110 105 0.368
RCO1T 14.92 7.02 0.356 170 147 151 0.423
RC04T 15.08 6.97 0.670 185 154 162 0.458
RC02T 14.73 7.01 1.379 194 161 169 0.493
Stress-strain curve of 316 SS in torsion at 1008 oC
[9]

Fatigue-life curves

Effect of Environment (Sodium, Helium, and Air) on cycles to failure


Exposure Condition - 286 hrs at 925 K

Effect of environment on 316 SS at 925 K; based on cyclic strain and cycles to failure
[10]

Fatigue ε-N behaviour on type 316 SS in air at various temperatures


The designated three curves in the plot are based on the current ASME Code mean curve, the best–fit curve developed by Jaske and O'Donnell and an updated statistical model that is discussed below. Tests at room–temperature air have been conducted in load–control mode with stress levels in the range of 190–230 MPa.


The ANL statistical model
Fatigue ε–N data are generally expressed in terms of the modified Langer equation which correlates fatigue life N with the applied strain amplitude εa as
ln(N) = A - B ln(εa - C)
and the fatigue data for 316 SS is represented by,
ln(N) = 6.703 - 2.030 ln(εa - 0.126)
Recommended for predicted fatigue life lives ≤106 cycles.

Fatigue ε-N behaviour on type 316 SS in air at various temperatures
[11]

Experimental and predicted fatigue ε-N behaviour on type 316 SS in low-dissolved oxygen (DO) water at 325 oC


The experimental fatigue ε–N data for 316 SS in low–DO water at 325°C and 0.4%/s strain rate, and the corresponding fatigue ε–N curves predicted from the Bettis, ANL, and MITI models are shown


The ANL statistical model
Fatigue ε–N data are generally expressed in terms of the modified Langer equation which correlates fatigue life N with the applied strain amplitude εa as
ln(N) = A - B ln(εa - C)
and the fatigue data for 316 SS is represented by,
ln(N) = 6.703 - 2.030 ln(εa - 0.126)


Experimental and predicted fatigue ε-N behaviour on type 316 SS in low-DO water at 325 oC
[11]

Effect of sensitization annealing on fatigue life of 316 SS in low–dissolved oxygen (DO) water at 325°C


The fatigue ε–N behavior of solution–annealed and sensitized Types 316 SS in low and high–DO water are shown
WQ = water quenched

Effect of sensitization annealing on fatigue life of 316 SS in low–DO water at 325°C. WQ = water quenched
[12]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 A K Steels, Product Data Sheet 316/316L Stainless Steel, http://www.aksteel.com/pdf/markets_products/stainless/austenitic/316_316l_data_sheet.pdf
  2. A K Steels, Product Data Bulletin 316/316L Stainless Steel, http://www.aksteel.com/pdf/markets_products/stainless/austenitic/316_316l_data_bulletin.pdf
  3. North American Stainless, Long Products Stainless Steel Grade Sheet, http://www.northamericanstainless.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/10/Grade-316-316L1.pdf
  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 ASM International,Atlas of Stress-strain Curves, 2002, p 193-202, ISBN:9780871707390, https://books.google.com/books?id=up5KS9fd\_pkC
  5. Rokuro Nishimura, Yasuaki Maeda, SCC evaluation of type 304 and 316 austenitic stainless steels in acidic chloride solutions using the slow strain rate technique, Corrosion Science, Volume 46, Issue 3, March 2004, Pages 769-785, ISSN 0010-938X, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.corsci.2003.08.001. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0010938X03002312)
  6. Meyers, Shock Wave and High-Strain-Rate Phenomena in Materials, CRC Press, 1992, p 687, ISBN:9780824785796, https://books.google.com/books?id=5y7inV40OqgC
  7. Y. V. R. K. Prasad, S. Sasidhara, Hot Working Guide: A Compendium of Processing Maps, ASM International, 1997, p 312, ISBN 9781615032020, https://books.google.com/books?id=orphpC0hEYoC
  8. Syed Mujahed Hussaini, Swadesh Kumar Singh, Amit Kumar Gupta, Formability and fracture studies of austenitic stainless steel 316 at different temperatures, Journal of King Saud University - Engineering Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 2, July 2014, Pages 184-190, ISSN 1018-3639, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jksues.2013.05.001. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1018363913000160)
  9. 9.00 9.01 9.02 9.03 9.04 9.05 9.06 9.07 9.08 9.09 9.10 9.11 9.12 Rafael Cola̕s Ortiz, High Strain Rate High Temperature Deformation of Stainless Steel, University of Sheffield, December 1983, http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/3019/1/DX084062.pdf
  10. Howard E. Boyer, Atlas of Fatigue Curves, American Society for Metals, ASM International, 1985, p 223, ISBN: 9780871702142, https://books.google.com/books?id=Hbo8dI4CqVAC&dq=316+ss+fatigue+life+curve+atlas&source=gbs_navlinks_s
  11. 11.0 11.1 Omesh K. Chopra, Developement of fatigue design curve for austenitic Stainless Steels in LWR environments: A review , Energy Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, http://www.ipd.anl.gov/anlpubs/2002/03/42152.pdf
  12. O. K. Chopra, Mechanism and Estimation of Fatigue Crack Initiation in Austenitic Stainless Steels in LWR Environments, Argonne National Laboratory, August 2002, http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/nuregs/contract/cr6787/cr6787.pdf

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